Existence of God
Let us now do a metaphysical proof of the existence of God. First of all, in our reality, there are one of two options: (1) no unconditioned realties exist, or (2) at least one unconditioned reality exists. What is conditioned reality? It is any form of existence that is dependent on a more simpe form of existence to exist. For example, humans are dependent on their DNA which is dependent on molecules, which is dependent on atoms, etc. If (1) is true, than that would mean there is an infinite number of conditioned realties. However, this is self-contradictory because eventually a reality would have to be dependent on nothing, and reality cannot come from nothing. Threfore, (2) is true; there must be at least one unconditioned reality.
Next, there is either one or more than one unconditioned reality. There must only be one unconditioned reality due to the idea of simplicity. Each reality has a level of simplicity. For example, there are red blood cells, which have realtively the same simplicity as neutrophils, macrophages, endothelial cells, etc. Even more simple, there are protons, which have a similar simplicity to neutrons and electrons. Yet even more simple than electrons is light. Note that the more simple the reality, the less restrictions there are on its conditions for its existence. Therefore, the unconditioned reality which caused the first conditional reality, must be the simplest form of existence imaginable. It must have no restrictions or boundaries.
This unconditioned reality is the creator of all conditioned reality. Because of this relationship, the creator must also interact with conditioned reality at all moments in time in a continuous fashion. Otherwise, conditioned reality would cease to exist. In other words, because the creator is outside conditioned reality, it must also be outside of time. Another term for the creator is God. God is the one unconditioned reality with no limitations.
Three Kinds of Infinity
Let us now talk about the concept of time. Is time infinite? Did time have a beginning or starting point? First let us look at three definitions of “infinite” which is seen in Spitzer’s book. Spitzer calls them A, B, and C-infinity. A-infinity is defined as unrestricted. Examples include unrestricted power, speed, knowledge, intelligence, etc. This is not a mathematical concept because it is not referring to a concrete number. Therefore, A-infinity does not apply to time. Next is B-infinity. B-infinity is defined as potential infinity. Unlike A-infinity, B-infinity is a mathematical concept. Examples of B-infinity include a number line that could go on for infinity, or an exponential increase that could go for infinity, or a function approaching a limit that could go on for infinity, but never reaches it. All of these are “potential” infinity because they can be described mathematically on paper, but there are no real world examples of this.
Finally, there is C-infinity. C-infinity is actual infinity. An example of this would be an actual ruler that in infinitely long. Is this possible? Many mathematicians would say that C-infinity is mathematical fiction. Why? It is full of contradictions and paradoxes. Think about how time works. The concept of time is based on events that occur and the passing of those events. Take the example of Schrödinger’s cat. In 1935, Schrödinger did an experiment where he placed a cat in a box with a device that would release some poison in the box at an unknown time. Since Schrödinger did not know when the poison was released, the cat is both alive and dead at the same time to anything outside the box. But this is a paradox. The cat is not alive and dead at the same time. It is simply unknown from the persective outside the box. A cat was alive, then it was poisoned, then it died. This proves we live in a finite, aggregative world. Mathematically, C-infinity can not exist in a universe that is finite or aggregative. Look at this quote by the German mathematician David Hilbert:
“In summary, let us return to our theme and draw some conclusions from all our thinking about the infinite. Our principal result is that the infinite is nowhere to be found in reality. It neither exists in nature nor provides a legitimate basis for rational though – a remarkable harmony between being and though….The role that remains for the infinite to play is solely that of an idea – if one means by an idea, in Kant’s terminology, a concept of reason which transcends all experience and which completes the concrete as a totality” – Hilbert, On the Infinite, 1964.
So because we live in a world where we can measure the actual length, height, and weight of an object, and events occur and pass us, actual infinity cannot exist in our world. The concepts of being unrestricted and infinity exist, but real world examples are impossible. Therefore, time is also finite and had a beginning. In the future, time will have an ending as well. Also, since C-infinity is impossible, it is likely that a being with A-infinity attributes created the universe. That A-infinity being is God. God created time along with the universe and has unrestricted power.
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