Existence of God

Multiple Universes

There have been many theories about multiple universes or a multiverse. Basically, they claim that there are an infinite number of universes running parallel to each other, with an infinite number of possibilities. Our known universe is simply one of those possibilities. This explains the penrose number and universal constants. It is true that our universe is rare, but that is because there are an infinite number of universes where life did not occur and was not possible. There are many movies about this concept including The Wizard of Oz and It’s a Wonderful Life. Scientific theories for this include The Everett-DeWitt Quantum “Many Worlds” Hypothesis, Linde’s Chaotic Inflationary Multiverse, and The String Theory Landscape. All of these theories have the following problems:

1. Ockham’s Razar (Cannon of Parsimony) – this states that the most plausible explanation is the one which contains the simplest ideas and has the least number of assumptions, any multiverse theory has many assumptions

2. BVG Theorem – as we discussed earlier, any expanding universe (including a multiverse) must have had a beginning, and therefore a cause, which is God

3. Highly Theoretical – other universes cannot be inspected, thus there is very little evidence for them

String Theory

In the 1980s, several physicists proposed that all particles and forms of energy in the universe came from one-dimensional “strings” which only have length, but no height or width. These strings vibrate in multiple dimensions, and depending on how they vibrate, they might be seen as matter, light, energy, etc. In total, these strings make up 10 dimensions, although we can only see 4 including time. There then emerged five consistent string theories including Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB, E8xE8 heterotic, and SO(32) heterotic. This was a problem, because all 5 theories could not be correct, could they? Then in 1995, Edward Witten demonstrated the equivalence of heterotic SO(32) string theories with low-energy effective string field theories of Type I. Subsequently, several other physicists found consistencies in the other theories as well. Then a new theory was born explaining all five string theories. In this theory, the strings also had a finite width in addition to its length, thus giving 11 dimensions. This was called “M-Theory.” Nobody knows what the “M” stands for because we do not completely understand this theory. Even the physicist who named it called it “M” because he felt that he didn’t know enough about it. It is highly theoretical and may not even be mathematically consistent.

A recent scenario based on string theory was released in 2003, when Gasperini and Veneziano proposed that the universe started its evolution from a string perturbative vacuum (SPV) phase, which is homogeneous, empty, cold, and flat. They proposed that this phase could have been of infinite duration, which would mean that the universe did not have a beginning.

The physics and mathematics of string theory is very complicated, so I do not want to discuss all the details. However, here are some basic problems. Firstly, if we include non-positive values for constants, string theory has an infinite number of variations. Secondly, some variations of M-theory require assigning infinite values to physical quantities which is mathematically inconsistent. Finally, string theory does not fully account for the Penrose Number or the BVG Theorem that we previously talked about.

Cosmological Conclusion

No cosmological theory effectively describes how something can come out of nothing. Physics can explain how our universe came from a very small amount of matter and how that matter came out of a low energy quantum vaccum, but not how absolute nothing turned into something. There must have been a transcendent cause outside our universe which breathed existence into it. This transcedent cause must have been extremely intelligent because it planned universal constants allowing the vast complexity of life which would have not been possible if left up to chance. That cause is God, the creator of the universe.

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